LEONID TISHKOV (*1953 Russia) is an artist and successful playwright, a neo-romanticist of postindustrial Moscow conceptualism overcoming the ironic deconstruction of it through a new sincerity and poetics focusing on eternal subjects and archetypes.
In his projects „The Private Moon“, „The Visit of a Star“, „Light All Around“, „Apokryphos“ the artist experiments with staged photography using the style of glossy fashion magazines.
“The Private Moon” is a story of a domesticated celestial body. It has fallen to the earth as if through carelessness and is in no hurry to go back to the dome of heaven. It is being taken care of – given boat rides on a lake, covered with a blanket and fed fallen apples. The Moon as the Earth satellite easily becomes a human attendant. At times it looks like a poor relation, forced to abandon it celestial abode. Here Tishkov’s typical surrealism has been reduced to the minimum in it. The Moon is a Dabloid of ideal form and high birth.
“The Visit of a Star” is altogether different in mood. Tishkov explains this by the fact that stars have a different nature, which is more aggressive than that of the moon. They are too active in their luminescence. In this “cold and hot” relationship the Moon and the Star are poles apart. That’s why one has to be careful with stars. The star is nearly always photographed in the snow: you have to chill it so as not to get burned. You will hardly invite the star to your place. The bent figure of the person, who has found a star, shows that it is not only a treasure but also at times an unbearable burden.
Although there is no direct relation between the light-boxes of the “Light All Around” project, on the one hand, and the Moon and the Star, on the other, they, too, may be used in staged series. From the formal point of view the objects of the “Light All Around” project are an extension of what the American minimalists James Turrell and Dan Flavin did with the sources of light. As distinct from them Tishkov operates not so much with space as with the story.
Bittersweet modern Russian art
By Jackie Wullschlager
"Beauty, though, will save the world," wrote Dostoyevsky in The Idiot. Generations of artists and writers played out that uniquely Russian glittering idealism: first building revolutionary utopias - Malevich's and Kandinsky's abstraction, supposed to herald a new spiritual reality - then turning to "underground" art as an inner emigration, a morally authentic opposition to communist oppression. Seventeen years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, is anything left of that ecstatic seriousness in Russian art today?
The poster image for Russian Dreams is a slice of a phosphorescent green moon pulled down to perch on a roof terrace giving on to a vast twinkling city. It comes from Leonid Tishkov's ravishing photographic series "Private Moon", shown in Paris earlier this year - a work of formal beauty choreographed with photographer Boris Bendikov to cast Tishkov as lost hero of a modern fairy tale, journeying through different worlds and into dreams to protect his imagination. The big fake fluorescent moon set variously within a diamond blue stage set, zooming in at an open window, hanging low over a shadowy figure in a water garden, bringing flickering romance to a giant Moscow apartment block, reminded me all at once of the moonlit views of the Dnieper by 19th-century landscapist Arkhip Kuindzhi (the revelation at the National Gallery's 2004 Russian Landscape in the Age of Tolstoy show), Gogol's urban fairy tales such as the proto-surreal "The Overcoat", and the revolutionary opera Victory over the Sun, designed by Malevich, where the sun is captured and brought down to earth, plunging the world into darkness to prepare for a new cosmic order. Tishkov similarly pulls the moon out of the sky to recast everyday life, but with the 21st-century ambivalence towards lost utopias, melancholy and sense of disconnection that characterise all the works in Miami.
Russian Dreams', Bass Museum of Art, Miami Beach, to February 8.
Copyright The Financial Times Limited 2008
Writer Chesterton once said that there couldn’t be a personal faith
as there couldn’t be a personal sun or a personal moon. In Russia
everything is the other way round: we are faced with life one to
one, and we are completely lonely in the face of the problem of
time, that is, the problem of life and death, the problem of losses
and gains, the moon, the sun, and everything in this life. We could,
conceivably, turn to someone for support. But we are still lonely…
However, that shouldn’t make us grieve or suffer. Loneliness of
this sort means that we exist, we are here, we are at the center of
the universe and we are comparable to the Moon, to the other
“Private Moon” is a visual poem telling the story of a man
who met the Moon and stayed with her for the rest of his life. In
the upper world, in fact in the attic of his own house, he saw the
Moon falling off from the sky. Once she was hiding from the Sun
in a dark and damp tunnel. But the passing trains frightened her.
Now she came to this man’s house. Having wrapped the Moon
with warm blankets he treated her with autumn apples, gave her
a cup of tea, and when she got well he took her in his boat across
the dark river to the high bank overgrown with moon pine-trees.
He descended into the lower world dressed in the clothes of his
deceased father and then returned from there lighting up his path
with his personal Moon. Crossing the borderline between the two
worlds across a narrow bridge, immersed in a dream and taking
care of this heavenly creature, the man became a mythological
being living in a real world as in a fairytale.
Each photograph is a poetic tale, a little poem in its own right.
Therefore each picture is accompanied by my own verse, which I
wrote when I drew my sketches for the photographs. So it turns
out that the Moon overcomes our loneliness in the universe
uniting many of us around it.
Following its large-scale outdoor sculpture projects, ecological art projects and Contemporary Austronesian Art Project, the Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts will highlight the nocturnal charms of the museums park with "light art". The renowned contemporary Russian master Leonid Tishkov, a talented artist working with performance, theatre, poetry and painting, will present a large moon installation rich in literary associations. Opening during the Mid-Autumn Festival, the exhibition will bring us a magnificent
visual feast of Russian culture and the poetic imagination of Nordic fairytales.
Russian avant-garde art, rediscovered by Western and Soviet art critics, artists and collectors in the 1960s, has ever since gone through numerous stages of scholarly and artistic interpretation. Speaking of Leonid Tishkov we are, of course, interested in the latter. In the 1970s artists of Conceptualist leanings turned to avant-garde art as a source of reference, a system of views (including political) and a range of masterpieces. Although every one of them treated avant-garde art in his or her own way, mockery was the predominant attitude that was also manifested in the structure of their works. The social situation in Russia, needless to say, precluded Pop art as an ideology, yet, as has been repeatedly pointed out, many artists operating within the framework of Sots-art and Conceptualism in fact developed Pop art by local means. The clash between a reproduction in numerous copies and a unique piece of work emerged as a key Pop art method, as a rule, tinged with mockery. Roy Lichtenstein, who imitated modernist masterpieces in the style of a printing screen (Brush Stroke, 1965, in imitation of abstract expressionism), produced important works in this respect. Similar interpenetration can be found in what the Sots-artist Alexander Kosolapov did with official Soviet art (Gorbachev, 1987, in the style of Andy Warhol). The “New Wave” artists and the Young Conceptualists made references to avant-garde art pretty much the same way as the older generation did or else put them in a new context – the psychedelic band-wagon (the activities of “Medical Hermeneutics” and some works of Nikita Alexeyev). Although Leonid Tishkov belongs to the generation of “The New Wave” artists, his attitude to avant-garde art is fundamentally different from that of his colleagues and contemporaries. In the context of the “New Wave” Tishkov’s works look far blunter, graphically more original and in general more serious in attitude. The effect is explained by the fact that Tishkov tames and domesticates avant-garde art by reliving it anew. Conceptualists are interested in the social aspect of the operation of the avant-garde image, in other words, the life of the Black Square either in society or in the midst of other artistic phenomena. Whereas Tishkov is attracted to the sources and the avant-garde art still cherishing its hopes. He is fascinated with the very avant-garde process of not only work, that is, with Letatlin as an original vision rather than as a means of transportation. In this Tishkov is closer to Surrealists. It can be said that he applies irrational techniques to the avant-garde dream. The viewer is left disoriented. In his works Tishkov erases the borders of styles and objectives which we usually ascribe to them (world building in avant-garde art and the subconscious in Surrealism). They get mixed in different proportions and superimposed on each other. Tishkov began to contribute his works to the Smena magazine and the Estonian daily Serp i molot (The Hammer and the Sickle) in the early 1970s. In 1976 he joined the Graphic Artists Moscow City Committee, together with artists of the Bulldozer Exhibition, the VDNKh Bee-breeding pavilion exhibition and the VDNKh House of Culture exhibition who sought to operate legally. Two years later Tishkov exhibited in Tartu (Estonia) and, together with his older colleagues in cartoon drawing, at the Graphic Artists Moscow City Committee exhibition hall in Malaya Gruzinskaya Street. In 1981 he took part in the cartoon competition of West Berlin. There a West German artist (whose name has failed to be retained in history) exhibited a caricature of Leonid Brezhnev, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, causing indignation among the Soviets. The noteworthy fact is that, though Tishkov showed nothing politically questionable at the competition, he was indirectly associated with the German cartoonist. He was barred from exhibition halls and the media only because his work was exhibited next to the German cartoon. There is some inner logic in the fact that Tishkov began with drawing cartoons. Sigmund Freud was the first to draw attention to joke as a manifestation of the subconscious in operation. He was interested in the hidden meaning of puns and conscious play of words. Subsequently, Surrealists drew on the theory of psychoanalysis. In his works Tishkov frequently refers to embryonic or childhood experience through the use of Surrealist pictorial means. His book of cartoons Chorny yumor dlya belykh i tsvetnykh (Black Humor for Whites and Coloreds) rests on theatricals and shows characters as the embodiments of one aspect or another of the human mind. As a result of the political incident Tishkov turned to book illustration and gained official recognition in that field. The Conceptualist artist Igor Makarevich, whose professionally crafted monumental works brought him respect in the Artists Union, helped Tishkov join the youth section of the Artists Union. Gradually Tishkov came close to creating his own myths, which culminated in the birth of the dabloids and the publication of a book under the same title in August 1991, right in the days of the putsch. That was the birth of Tishkov, the free artist. His reputation as a top-class caricaturist and illustrator was steadily forgotten. True, an edition of Carroll’s The Hunting of the Snark illustrated by Tishkov was immensely popular. Tishkov says that his career follows the DNA helix, meaning that he constantly returns to his favorite themes and motifs. Leonid Tishkov’s projects for the Krokin Gallery have been divided into three parts in this article on the basis of formal and contextual similarity. Put together, they represent Tishkov’s works to-date as a single space of personal myth or the DNA helix. Leonid Tishkov’s Myths and Legends Projects: “ARCHIVATION OF MODERNEITY”. THE DIVERS. THE ARTIST’S HOUSE Leonid Tishkov developed the themes that first appeared in book illustrations and early sketches of the dabloid myths in his early graphic works and paintings done in the traditional techniques of oil on canvas, ink-and-pen drawing and gouache. Objects from “The Artist’s House” project are an exception: the diverse techniques used in it are explained by the fact that in that project Tishkov showed the contents of his studio, fragments of sundry projects and even what auction houses refer to as memorabilia: keepsakes and souvenirs linked with his works. The Dabloid is at the center of Tishkov’s mythological universe. Morphologically a dabloid may look like a leg or a nose. It is a symbol of human individuality, man’s “hobbyhorse”, to quote Laurence Sterne, or an agglomeration of his shortcomings. People rarely notice their Dabloids. Tishkov’s philosophy aims precisely to recognize and accept one’s dabloid: “The first meeting [with a dabloid] usually takes place in solitude. A person comes to a standstill, stops fussing, rolls his eyes and sees it opposite him...”. If ignored, the Dabloid either controls the person or acts independently, bringing discord into the surrounding world. Many artifacts from “The Artist’s House” project are Dabloids of different kinds done in different techniques for different events, exhibitions and performances. In his myth-making Tishkov, however, goes beyond the Dabloids. Aiming to build his own cosmology, Tishkov creates the image of Dablus, the original mother in the form of the double female breast. Cosmology leads to aeschatology – there appears a Diver, a creature from the other world. Like the Dabloid, the Diver appeared in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. The intermediate position of the Divers between the world of the living and the world of the dead (or those that never existed) is emphasized by a tube that trails behind those creatures and looks like an umbilical cord. The Diver is yet to be born to this world – therefore it belongs equally to reality and potentiality (see, for instance, the sheet Building his World before Being Born). The Divers are perhaps the grimmest creatures invented by Tishkov. The graphic series was made in gray and sepia shades, without any bright inserts characteristic of the Dabloids series. Space, in which the Divers operate, is always deserted, devoid of any architecture and for the most part unlit by any celestial bodies. Their physiology is reminiscent of human figures as portrayed by Salvador Dali. Apart from portraits, Dali tended to show his characters as if made of soft clay. In an introductory note to his exhibition Tishkov wrote that he first met the underwater operators in childhood when he saw a diver carry a drowned person ashore. The character appeared far before the series was conceived. One of his earlier cartoons of the mid-1980s shows a diver dragging a mermaid out of the sea. Next to them there is a boat, in which two grim people dressed in suits are holding a ballot box at the ready. The caption reads, “No coercion: she is casting her vote of her own free will”. The political aspect, so rare in Tishkov, is practically leveled out by the story and its execution: the arch-like “gothic” silhouettes that are characteristic of his graphic works and reminiscent of Simone Martini make the viewer slip, together with the characters, into the realm of mysticism and fairytale. The latest reincarnation of the Diver is made of bronze. These are figures the size of a four-year-old child. Their helmets are equipped with searchlights. Perhaps unconsciously Tishkov has reproduced the design of a divers monument for the Special Purpose Underwater Operation Expedition (EPRON), which was founded in the 1920s to look for the Black Prince ship that sank in the mid-19th century. Vera Mukhina, who designed the chief Soviet sculpture Worker and Kolkhoz Woman, designed the EPRON monument in the style of avant-garde architects – the diver’s head was to hold a beacon and a radio station. The two designs virtually coincide: in both cases the helmet porthole is a source of light. Tishkov used his experience as a cartoonist and book designer in his early canvases, in which the by then recognizable graphic manner was combined with the “icon-painting” color scheme, with its predominant earthly, purple and olive tones and red inserts framing the most important characters (thus, the Dabloid in bed was painted red). Space in Tishkov’s canvases is likewise close to icon space: there is practically no depth or receding perspective. These canvases were exhibited within the framework of the “Archivation of Modernity” project that focused on early or little known works of Krokin Gallery artists. More often than not Tishkov’s characters are skinny young men in suits, an image characteristic of the “New Wave” (for instance, Vasily Shumov’s “Center”, the most avant-garde band of Moscow, performed in suits). These characters are frequently going through the process of spiritual regeneration or getting some otherworldly experience. In some works there is an image of a toothed wing. In another canvas two wings are clutching at a man’s shoulders and trying to lift him up; apparently, we have here a variation of Pushkin’s poem The Prophet, in which a six-winged seraph turns an ordinary man into an orator and a prophet. Another interpretation is also possible. Goya’s famous etching The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters is full of winged monsters born of the subconscious. In Tishkov’s interpretation the winged furies are messengers of the elevated, ecstasy and things unattainable in reality. No doubt, they do revoke the mind and at the same time enable imagination to levitate. Art Luminaries Projects: THE PRIVATE MOON, THE VISIT OF A STAR. LIGHT ALL AROUND “The Private Moon” is perhaps the better known project by Tishkov, who experimented with a new pictorial idiom using a new style. What matters is not so much that staged photography is at the heart of “The Private Moon” and the companion project “The Visit of a Star”. In these series Tishkov used the style of fashion photography for a glossy magazine. The professional advertising photographer Boris Bendikov helped him with the project. They met each other when Bendikov came to Tishkov’s studio to take pictures of some of Tishkov’s works for the Kak (How) design magazine. After seeing the resultant photographs, Tishkov suggested that they work together. Bendikov proved a perfect co-author. In addition to being a professional, he is endowed with an ability to be self-mocking (a rare quality in his profession) and the desire to lay bare his techniques. At his solo shows he exhibits still-lifes of products he advertises or w/b pictures of fashionably dressed manikins. In these works Bendikov employs only the formal means of advertising photography, such as light and object placement, showing to the viewer the birth of an image intended as something to be desired. This tendency to self-criticism, to use Stalin-period parlance, enables Bendikov to achieve fine results when operating with a difficult matter, such as Leonid Tishkov’s ideas. One of Tishkov’s projects served as another source of “The Private Moon” and “The Visit of a Star”. In 2003 the “Apokryphos” exhibition opened at the garret of the State Center for Contemporary Art. It consisted of an installation, in which Tishkov used light-boxes in the form of a crescent, a six-pointed star and a cross. The general idea formed another aspect of Tishkov’s mythology, with a Christmas tree crucified on the cross and a toy snowman acting as Mary Magdalene. Moscow’s artistic community paid little notice to that variation of the theme of Christian mythology and its analogy with natural cycles. Nevertheless, Tishkov decided to develop the theme and to use the objects in a different context. The “Apokryphos” objects thus formed the backbone of new photographic series. Every close-up was made without any Photoshop aid. First, Tishkov made matchbox-size sketches of photo compositions. “The Private Moon” is a story of a domesticated celestial body. It has fallen to the earth as if through carelessness and is in no hurry to go back to the dome of heaven. It is being taken care of – given boat rides on a lake, covered with a blanket and fed fallen apples. The Moon as the Earth satellite easily becomes a human attendant. At times it looks like a poor relation, forced to abandon it celestial abode by MKAD ring-road lights and other gadgets invented by man. Among other things, the series is interesting by the fact that Tishkov’s typical surrealism has been reduced to the minimum in it. The Moon is a Dabloid of ideal form and high birth. In an interview given to the present author a few years ago Tishkov did not excluded the possibility of making a series with yet another light-box in the form of a cross. Tishkov said that he was very much attracted by the image of St. Francis of Assisi. “I want to ask Bendikov if it is possible to make a photo of the saint, bending in front of the cross and rays coming from the ends of the cross-beam and burning stigmata on his wrists, without any special effects.” “The Visit of a Star” is altogether different in mood. Tishkov explains this by the fact that stars have a different nature, which is more aggressive than that of the moon. They are too active in their luminescence. In this “cold and hot” relationship the Moon and the Star are poles apart. That’s why one has to be careful with stars. The star is nearly always photographed in the snow: you have to chill it so as not to get burned. You will hardly invite the star to your place. The bent figure of the person, who has found a star, shows that it is not only a treasure but also at times an unbearable burden. Like Repin’s barge hauler, the protagonist of “The Visit of a Star” is dragging it somewhere, perhaps, in order to bury it. Although there is no direct relation between the light-boxes of the “Light All Around” project, on the one hand, and the Moon and the Star, on the other, they, too, may be used in staged series. From the formal point of view the objects of the “Light All Around” project are an extension of what the American minimalists James Turrell and Dan Flavin did with the sources of light. As distinct from them Tishkov operates not so much with space as with the story. The two buckets beaming cold light could have been drawn from life: the full moon is reflected in the water. Spiritual Handicrafts Projects: “LADOMIR” and “HOMEWORK” Handmade artistry is pivotal to Tishkov’s works. In “Ladomir” and “Homework” Tishkov again makes a sudden shift, abandoning his customary characters in favor of new plastic solutions and a new content. “Ladomir” is the most technically sophisticated and unusual of Tishkov’s projects. The title was borrowed from the famous poem of Velimir Khlebnikov, a poet greatly admired by Tishkov. Khlebnikov wrote his Ladomir in 1920-1921 shortly before his death. He is thought to have attained the pinnacle of revolutionary spirit in that poem. Tishkov recreated the “Ladomir” characters and the universe built by them using bread and pasta, the material socially close to the proletariat. The two farinaceous products are to this day staple food for the poor. The used media thus matches the revolutionary charge of the poem. Khlebnikov’s onslaught against the money – the dominant theme of the poem – is conveyed in the inexpensive products chosen by Tishkov. The material dictated the shape of those objects. A bundle looking like a haystack proved to be the most stable structure to be made of macaroni. Macaroni structures bring to mind the early projects of Russian avant-garde art and in particular utopian cities built by Nikolai Ladovsky on the basis of biomorphism. True, some samples of “macaroni architecture” can be traced back not only to avant-garde prototypes but also later constructions of the type of Boris Iofan’s design of the Palace of Soviets or Lev Rudnev’s main building of Moscow University. Others are reminiscent of Futurism – in outline a macaroni sculpture of a man is close to Umberto Boccioni’s Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (1913). An even closer association can be established with the works of the two paper architects Ilya Utkin and Alexander Brodsky. Their sculptures (A Hero Monument and The Black Ship) of the early 1990s likewise refer to the design ideas of Soviet avant-garde architects. There is also some plastic similarity: Brodsky and Utkin used in their works line elements reminiscent of ink hatching. Tishkov’s graphic works accompanying “Ladomir” are also based on outwardly chaotic hatching. Brodsky and Utkin, however, preferred solid shapes to formalize the inner vacuum of their “monuments”. Tishkov manipulates with the scale of an architectural design. His constructions defy the laws of architectonics and, at least from the viewer’s point of view, are always at risk of folding down and crumbling. The same as Khlebnikov used syntax in his poem to express the flow of psychological states, interruption and vague messages, Tishkov domesticates his unstable avant-garde. His Homework project has an altogether different thrust. In it Tishkov follows the avant-garde impulse to study and make use of folklore elements. Fabric is the main material here. Artists have long been mastering various techniques of working with fabrics and have already gone beyond the realm of decorative and applied art, to which they were confined earlier. Thus, Dmitry Tsvetkov makes soft toys in the form of little men or weapons. Timur Novikov, the founder of Neo-academism, used fabrics as the main material for his pictures. Tishkov, however, employs fabrics not so much to create an image as to direct this process. The artist’s mother in part contributed to the “Homework” project. Using Tishkov’s sketch, she made the centerpiece of the exhibit, the Knitling, a raggedy human figure reminiscent of other Tishkov’s characters – the Divers and “Ladomir” heroes. Yet, the Knitling is rather an embodiment of all-consuming total care, a distant relative of the mittens that are to be put on without fail before you go out. This apparel helps to go back to the mother’s bosom. When his mother died, she left behind many pieces of fabrics, thread and buttons. Tishkov used the latter to make a button icon of the Mother of God. This marks the transfer of personal emotions and childhood space into the area of the Christian myth, which consistently exploits the image of the mother. Tishkov’s desire to build a universe of his own in no way contradicts his readiness to use and re-interpret other myths wherever they exercise maximum power over man.
2011 The Arctic Diary, Krokin gallery. Moscow
Volta 6 Basel
Barbarian Art Gallery, Zurich In Search of the Miraculous, (selected works, 1980-2010), Moscow Museum of Modern Art. Moscow
2009 Light is All Around, Krokin gallery, Moscow
2008 House of Artist, Krokin gallery, Moscow Deep Sea Divers, Center for Contemporary Culture, Ekaterinburg University
2007 Look Homeward, Center for Contemporary Art Uyazdovsky castle, Warsaw Homework, Krokin gallery, Moscow Solveig, Vietnam Cultural and Art Center, Hanoi Divers from Heaven, Central House of Artists, Moscow
2006 Ladomir: utopian objects, Krokin gallery, Moscow Private Moon, Novosibirsk art museum, Russia Private Moon, Ekaterinburg region library, Russia Automatic letters, Pinakoteka magazine, Moscow
2005 Creatures, State gallery of Izhevsk, Russia Paintings 80th, Krokin gallery, Moscow Creatures, Yasnaya Poliana gallery, Tula, Russia
2004 Vodolazy, Krokin gallery, Moscow Apokryfos, National Contemporary Center for Art. Moscow
2003 Leonid Tishkov & Igor Macarevich: Masters of Russia Contemporary Mythology, Gallery K, Washington, USA
2002 Communal Pulp, ArtMoscow Studio, Moscow Gallery of the MuHA club, Moscow
2001 Vodolazes (Deep Sea Divers), District of Columbia Arts Center, Washington, USA Farewell to the Christmas tree, TV-gallery, Moscow Creatures of the Soft World, Russian State museum of Applied art, Moscow ZhZL, Gallery of the MuHA club, Moscow Tishkov Festival, Cultural Center DOM, Moscow, Russia
2000 Dabloids & another creatures, Nonmuseum, StPeterburg, Russia
1999 Crystal Stomach of the Angel, Gallery Dziga, Lviv, Ukraine Creatures, Contemporary Art Center Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia Creatures, Yaroslavl' Art Museum, Russia
1998 Dabloid Teater, Fargfabriken, Center for Contemporary Art, Stockholm, Sweden
1997 Prothodabloids, ArtMedia Center, TV-gallery, Moscow
1996 Creatures, Center for Contemporary Art, Chelyabinsk, Russia Creatures, State Art Gallery, Novosibirsk, Russia Anatomia of Russia, Spider & Mouse Gallery, Moscow
1995 Creatures, Museum of Art, Ekaterinburg, Russia Beast (TVar'), TVgallery, Moscow Dabloids and Elephants, Mary and Leigh Block Museum, Evanston Ill. USA
1994 Creatures, Museo de Arte Contemporeneo de Caracas Sofia Imber, Venezuela La Route du Coeur, Epreuve d'Artiste gallery, Lille, France Stomaki, L-gallery, Moscow Reproduction, Center House of Artists Moscow, Moscow
1993 Creatures, Duke University Museum of Art, Duram, NC, USA
1992 Hard and Soft, Velta Gallery, Moscow
1991 Not only Dabloids, Alyance Gallery, Moscow
2011 Earth. Space. Gagarin, Krokin gallery. Moscow Whales of the Season 7, Krokin gallery. Moscow
2009 ART MOSCOW, Central House of Artists, Krokin gallery booth
2008 Russian Dreams, Bass Museum of Art, Maiami Stars of Russian Video Art, North West Film Forum, Seattle Singapore Biennale, Singapore The Fabric of Myth, Compton Verney Gallery, GB, Riga, A(rt)R(ussia)T(oday)-index, Latvian National Museum of Art, Teleport Teleport Fargfabriken, Fargfabriken Norr, Ostersund, Norway, 100 Years of the Tungussky Meteorit, Krasnoyarsk Museum Center, Russia Fest of Private collection, Ravenscourt Gallery, Moscow, Russia This not Food, ERA Foundation, Moscow, Russia IMPRINT, Russian artist-publishers, Bibliotheca Wittockiana, Brussels, Belgium Dots, Museum of Contemporary Art, Rostov, Russia REVERS DU REEL, l'espace Michel Journiac, Sorbonne, Paris Moscow News, Art Center "Gallery", Izhevsk, Russia Process & Alchemy, Civilian Art Project, Washington DC, USA Radikale Alltäglichkeit, Culture Xchange Center, Wien, Austria
2007 Photobiennale, Branly Museum, Paris Adventure of the Black Square, State Russian Museum Progressive Nostalgia, Centro per l'arte contemporanea Luigi Pecci Prato, Italy The Time of storytellers, KIASMA Museum of Contemporary Art, Helsinki Return to Memory, KUMU Museum of Contemporary Art, Tallinn, Estonia, Architecture Ad marginem, State Russian Museum, St.petersburg Avanto,videofest, KIASMA Museum of Contemporary Art, Helsinki Krasnoyarsk Museum Biennale Barocco, Moscow Museum of Moderm Art Big Water Art Fest, Art Gallery of Yugra, Hanty-Mansyiask, Russia Words and Image, NCCA, Moscow, Tired Snow Videofest, Rodina Cinema Center, St.Peterburg
2006 MoMA, Museum of Modern Art, NY, Eye on Europe Fotomuseum, Antwerpen, Contemporary Russian Photography Bibliotheca Wittocania, Brussel, Russian Book art XX century State Center for Contemporary Art, Moscow, Innovations Photobiennale 10, Moscow, Visit of Star ArteBA 2006, Black box/white cube video-space, Codes of culture, Video Art from 7 Continents by The Project Room N.Y., Buenos Aires, Argentina Nanto cultural center, Japan, Moscow artist's message, Private moon
2005 Museum of modern art, Lubliana, Slovenia, 7 sins Center for contemporary art Uyasvyadosky zamok,Warsaw, Beyond of red horizon: Moscow-Warsaw Berghouse, London, Moscow Breakthrough, Contemporary Russian Artists
2004 State Historical Museum, Moscow-Berlin1950-2000, Moscow Manez, Moscow, Direction: South-North, KINO gallery, Moscow New Manez, Moscow, IX Art Forum Bishkek Art Museum, Kirkizstan, I International contemporary art exhibition
2003 Martin Gropius Bau, Moscow-Berlin1950-2000,Berlin New Manez,Direction:West,KINO gallery,Moscow Cheboksary Art Museum, Parapromysly Tretyakov Gallery,Graphic art of XXth century, Moscow ArtMoscow Studio, Moscow Slought Foundation, Philadelfia Detende: Russian Contemporary Art Video Format Queen's University, Belfast, Invisible Cities Artkliazma Fest, Moscow
2002 ArtMoscow Studio, Moscow New Manez,Moscow, VII Art Forum
2001 Contemporary Art Center of Virginia, The View from Here, VA,USA New Manez,Moscow, VI Art Forum New Manez,Direction:East, KINO gallery,Moscow
2000 Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, View from Here, Petropavlavski krepost',SPb,The Body Memory Manez,Moscow,Serials IAKH,Leipzig,Books of elements
1999 Kuntshalle Faust, Hannover, Russian videoart Cinematexas, video festival Grafeion gallery,Praha, Contemporary Art Museum of Andy Warhol, Slovakiya Russian Samizdat & Artist's books Yaroslavl Art Museum, Russia Space of a Book Pushkin Art Museum, Moscow Artit's books 70th-90th.
1998 State Berliner Library, Bochum Museum, Praprintium Fargfabriken,Center for Contemporary Art,Stockholm Furniture of Sven Lundh's Studio New Maneze,Moscow Sences Test Station,International Forum of Art Montpelier Art Center, USA Art Books of the 90th
1997 Albertina Museum Portfolios for Portfolio Kunst Corcoran Art Gallery, USA Russian Silkskreens from Moscow Studio Mimi Ferst Gallery, NY Russian Artists from Moscow Studio UFSA University Library, Antwerpen,Belgium Dablus & Do press Douglas F.Cooley Memorial Art Gallery, Reed College, USA SAMIZDAT East Europe
1996 Duke University Museum of Art Moscow Conceptual Aritsts Aberystwyth Art Centre, Boise, IDAHO,USA Glyn Vivian Art Gallery, Swansea, GB The John Rylands University Library,Manchester, GB Contemporary Russian Artists` Books Gotland Konst Museum, Visby, Sweden Nordgrafia 96
1995 Stormont Rooms, Rye, GB Contemporary Russian Artists` Books British Museum's Library Avanguarde Russian Books SAGA 96, Alain Buyse Editeur, Paris Centre Belge de la Bande Dessine, Brussel Russian Comics Strip
1994 Spider & Mouse Gallery, Moscow For Memory of Kashirka Ekaterinburg Art Museum, Russia Artists Books Anna Akhmatova Museum, Peterburg Paper Theatre SAGA 95, Alain Buyse Editeur,Paris
1993 City Museum and Art Gallery, Bristol, GB Ferens Art Gallery, Hull, GB A Time of Transition Art Center of Krasnoyarsk, Russia New Territory of Art Art center of Userch, France Livres d'artistes Russes et Sovietiques 1992 Pankow Gallery,Berlin International Exhibition of Visual Poetry Lyric-Cabinette, Munich, Russian Artist's Books
1991 Martigni Art Center, Switzerland, Furmanny's Artists Moscow Yung Palace, Agasphere
1990 Hauptmanschule,Kassel Transfuture.International Visual Poetry City Museum of Gotha Concrete.International Exhibition of Visual Poetry
Museum of Modern Art NY USA
Art Gàllery of Western Australia
Nasher Museum of Art Durham NC USA
Block Museum Ill USA
Center for Contemporary Art Uajzdowski castle, Warsaw
Centro per l'arte contemporanea Luigi Pecci, Prato, Italy
Center Getty CA USA
Zimmerly Art Museum NJ USA
Klingspor Museum Frankfurt
Victory & Albert Museum UK
Moscow Museum of Modern Art Moscow
Museum of Photography MDF Moscow
National Center for Contemporary Art Moscow
Ekaterinburg Art Museum
State Tretyakov Gallery Moscow
Pushkin Fine Art Museum Moscow
Stella Foundation collection
Novossibirsk Art Museum
Krasnoyarsk Art Museum Center
Yaroslavl Art Museum
Saratov Art Museum
Cheboksary Art Museum
Krokin gallery Moscow
Microinform collection Moscow